Goods transportation

Таможенное оформлениеTransportation (freight) is one of the basic kinds of human activity and its aim is a physical movement of goods between a place of origin and a point of destination. All manifestations of this kind of activity in total generate the transport sector of the economy  - which is a foundation of any state's economy.


Traditionally, the transportation of goods is classified according to such parameters:

-      the nature of the interaction with the customer (one-time, temporary and regular);

-      the volume of shipments (small-lot, lot, mass);

-      the periodicity of transport orders (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, seasonal);

-      the length and location of the route (local, long distance, international);

-      the nature of the goods (example of classification see below).

Goods transportation is a complex process and its realization technology varies depending on the conditions of each specific order, and can include the following stages:

  1. a shipper prepares goods and shipping documents for carriage;
  2. a carrier provides with a vehicle for loading;
  3. a  shipper transfers goods to a carrier for transportation;
  4. loading of the vehicle and filling the load compartment;
  5. shipping documents formalization carried out by a shipper;
  6. the process of transporting the goods to a consignee;
  7. goods transfer to a consignee carried out in accordance with shipping documents;
  8. unloading and acceptance of the goods by a consignee;
  9. shipping documents formalization carried out by a consignee;
  10. Проводяться розрахунки за послугу транспортування вантажу.

The complexity and variability of the carriage of any goods necessitates coordinated interaction of all participants in the transportation process. In general, they are a shipper, a carrier, a consignee and a customer who orders a carriage. Legally, their relations are governed by a contract for goods carriage which records all the terms of goods transportation (including the timing and amounts), and establishes rights, obligations and responsibilities of the parties. If a contract has been not concluded the transportation is governed by a transport waybill (CMR if it’s an international road transportation; a waybill if it’s a local transportation in Ukraine; the bill of lading for sea transportation, etc.
In order to optimize business processes in merchandise transportation they use various classifications of goods, one of them is shown below.
Thus goods are classified according to the following main characteristics:         

- the nature (animate and inanimate);

- the physical state (solid, liquid, gas);

- the method of loading, unloading and temporary storage (tare, piece, bulk and dry bulk, liquid);

- the weight (lightweight or heavy);

- standard or oversized;

- the expiration dates for consumption (usual or perishable);

- the microclimate mode (normal or special requirements for temperature, humidity, pressure, physical and chemical air composition);

- the mode of transportation (sea, railroad, sea, mixed);

- the sector of the economy (agriculture, industry, trade, construction, utilities);

- the customs status of the goods (export, import, transit);

- the level of the goods safety (low, normal, high);

          - the rate of goods hazard.
This list does not exhaust all the possible signs of goods classification but only reports their main categories.