International carriage

Алкогольные грузыInternational carriage is a transportation which can be carried by various modes of transport, and it takes place between two points located in two different countries.
There are international road carriage, international sea and air carriage, and so called international multimodal carriage. Each of these types is regulated by those conventions which were adopted in the world at different times for each type of transport, respectively, for each type of transportation.
International road carriage is a subject to the following conventions:
-  The Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR Convention) concluded in May 1956 in Geneva. Convention CMR is written a simple understandable language based on the usual logic. Perhaps for this reason, it is almost not changed over the 60 years of existence and relevant up to this day. It's kind of alphabet for all participants who take part in the international automobile transportation.
- The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention, 1975). The main objective of the TIR Convention was to simplify the procedure for passing the borders to exclude examination of vehicles with the help of sealing their customs space. TIR is a guarantee that the goods will be delivered to the customs office of the destination point.
And the interesting fact: however the original languages of the two Conventions are French and English equally the terminology used in international road traffic was mostly taken from French. Perhaps this is due to the fact that almost all the pioneers in the transport industry were French (Read more about it here).
International sea carriage is governed by The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty. There are also so-called the Rotterdam Rules, or, formally, the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea, which widely supplement the Hague-Visby Rules and the Hamburg Rules. In practice, an agreement on sea transportation of goods is directly a bill of lading; respectively, if we speak of a linear bill of lading all the conditions are set out on its reverse side.
International air carriage is regulated by Warsaw Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air adopted in 1929. International intermodal (multimodal) carriage is the transportation involving more than one type of transport, wherein the goods transported are the same from the start to the end of the transportation. Often multimodal carriage is provided under the same contract. In fact, intermodal, multimodal and mixed or combined carriages are identical concepts. Intermodal transportation will be governed by the conventions which regulate carriage by the certain type of transport you use to organize it.